Pitch control, as on the 109F, was either electro-mechanical (automatic) or manual-electric using a thumb-switch on the throttle lever. Cross and Scarborough 1976, pp. [78], During the course of 1943, a number of improvements were gradually introduced. It was originally intended that the wheel wells would incorporate small doors to cover the outer portion of the wheels when retracted. The latter system, when engaged, was capable of increasing engine output by 223 kW (300 hp) above the rated altitude to increase high-altitude performance. Over 12,000 examples were built well into 1944 although contradictory factory and RLM records do not allow an exact tally. Ultimately it was intended to equip all Bf 109 units with the 109K, which marked the final stage of 109 development before the jet age. The FuG 25a Erstling IFF system, as well as the FuG 125 Hermine D/F equipment were also fitted. Other features of the redesigned wings included new leading edge slats, which were slightly shorter but had a slightly increased chord; and new rounded, removable wingtips which changed the planview of the wings and increased the span slightly over that of the E-series. The prototype was first flown by Flugkapitän Fritz Wendel on 2 September 1940, and the test flights continued despite troubles with the BMW 801A powerplant. And now for some out-of-schedule aviation geekiness: Yesterday I encoutnered an off-hand comment about whether the Spitfire or the Messerschmitt (understood to be the Bf 109… Silica gel capsules were placed in each pane of the windscreen and opening canopy to absorb any moisture which may have been trapped in the double glazing. Fuel from the drop tank was pumped to the internal fuel tank via a large fuel line that ran up and along the inside starboard wall of the cockpit, with a clear sight glass located in the fuel line's main span so the pilot could easily see the flow of fuel and know when the tank was empty. Early in 1944, new engines with larger superchargers for improved high-altitude performance (DB 605AS), or with MW-50 water injection for improved low/medium-altitude performance (DB 605AM), or these two features combined (DB 605ASM) were introduced into the Bf 109 G-6. In early 1941, fifty T-1s were delivered toI./JG 77 at Drontheim in Norway, where their ability to takeoff on short runways would prove useful.Shortly afterward, the unit was redignated IV./JG 51, with t… All K-4s were to be fitted with a long retractable tail wheel (350 mm × 135 mm (13.8 in × 5.3 in)) with two small clamshell doors covering the recess when the tail-wheel was retracted. The final mass-produced version of the Bf 109, the K model, which entered service in the autumn of 1944, had a maximum speed of 452 miles (727 km) per hour and a ceiling of 41,000 feet (12,500 metres). Compared to the earlier Bf 109 E, the Bf 109 F was much improved aerodynamically. As the BMW 801 radial engine became available, a Bf 109F, Werknummer 5608, callsign D-ITXP was converted with a BMW 801 A-0. Bf 109H-2 and H-5 developments were also planned, but the entire H-series was scrapped because of wing flutter problems. With the MG FF/M, it was possible to fire a new and improved type of explosive shell, called Minengeschoß (or 'mine-shell'), which was made using drawn steel (the same way brass cartridges are made) instead of being cast as was the usual practice. BF-109 Markings 1939–1940 {Reference only}, Bayerische Flugzeugwerke (BFW) and Messerschmitt, Reich Air Ministry (RLM) aircraft designations, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Messerschmitt_Bf_109_variants&oldid=993996814, Wikipedia articles needing page number citations from September 2010, Wikipedia articles needing page number citations from November 2016, Articles with unsourced statements from December 2019, Articles with unsourced statements from August 2013, Articles with unsourced statements from October 2010, Wikipedia articles needing clarification from October 2010, Articles with unsourced statements from January 2014, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, F-2 trop (tropicalized version, only as field conversion), F-2/Z (high-altitude fighter with GM-1 boost, cancelled in favour of the F-4/Z), F-4/R1 (capable of mounting two 20 mm MG 151/20 cannons in underwing gondolas), F-4/R2 (dedicated recon version, 5 built), F-4/R3 (dedicated recon version, 36 built), F-4/Z (As F-4, high-altitude fighter with GM-1 boost), G-4/R3 (Long-range reconnaissance fighter, with 2 × 300 L/80 US gal underwing droptanks), G-5/U2 (High-altitude fighter with GM-1 boost), G-5/U2/R2 (High-altitude reconnaissance fighter with GM-1 boost), G-5/AS (High-altitude fighter with DB 605AS engine), G-6/R3 (Long-range reconnaissance fighter, with 2 × 300 L/80 US gal underwing droptanks), G-6/U4 (As G-6 but with 30 mm/1.18 in MK 108, G-6/AS (High-altitude fighter with DB 605AS engine), G-6N (Night fighter, usually with Rüstsatz VI (two underwing MG 151/20 cannons) and sometimes with, G-6/U4 N (as G-6N but with 30 mm/1.18 in MK 108, G-14/AS (High-altitude fighter with DB 605ASM engine, MW 50 boost), G-14/U4 (As G-14, but with 30 mm/1.18 in MK 108, G-10/R6 (Bad-weather fighter with PKS 12 autopilot), G-10/U4 (As G-10 but with 30 mm/1.18 in MK 108. Armament of the K-4 consisted of a 30 mm (1.2 in) MK 108 engine-mounted cannon (Motorkanone) with 65 rounds and two 13 mm (0.51 in) MG 131s in the nose with 300 rpg, although some K-4s were fitted with the MG 151/20 as the Motorkanone. Additional modifications included setting the main undercarriage hinges further inboard, with associated strengthening of the fuselage and modifications to the wing forward structure. A cautious estimate based on the available records suggest that about 5,500 G-14s and G-14/AS were built.[84]. These doors were often removed by front-line units. According to RLM documentation 22 aircraft were ordered and delivered with V4 as the A-series prototype. The Bf 109G was produced in greater numbers than any other model and served on all fronts. The Umrüst-Bausatz, Umbau or Rüstzustand[citation needed] were identified with either an "/R" or "/U" suffix and an Arabic number, e.g. The resulting design was a small, angular low-wing monoplane with closely set main landing gear that retracted outward into the wings. PARDUBICE, CZECH REPUBLIC - 6 June 2015:Messerschmitt Bf 109/ Me 109 German World War II aircraft aircraf in aviation fair and. A total of 647 Bf 109Ds of all versions were built by Focke-Wulf, Erla, Fieseler, Arado and AGO. The Messerschmitt Bf 109, like the North American P-51, 1 might have been the plane that never was. Frise-type ailerons replaced the plain ailerons of the previous models. The engine chosen was the Pratt & Whitney R-1830 of 1200 hp. Visible changes included engine, cockpit and machine gun ventilation holes/slats, and the location of the oil cooler was changed several times to prevent overheating. Armour and armament were otherwise similar to the K-6.[110]. Shop for messerschmitt bf 109 art from the world's greatest living artists. Like the F-1, the F-3 was armed with the 20 mm MG-FF/M and two 7.92 mm (.312 in) MG 17s. The DB 605 D-2 was a development of this using the larger DB 603 supercharger. [55] Some of the later models were capable of mounting two 20 mm MG 151/20 cannons under the wing in faired gondolas with 135 rpg. Messerschmitt 109 – myths versus facts. The great success and longevity of the Messerschmitt Bf 109 can be attributed to the simple directness of its design. Beaman, John R. Jr. and Jerry L. Campbell. As a further emphasis on Messerschmitt's philosophy of low-weight, low-drag aircraft, and in accordance with RLM's requirements, the Bf 109's guns were placed in the nose with two firing through the propeller rather … Armament was initially planned to be just two cowl-mounted 7.92 mm (.312 in) MG 17 machine guns. About 1,230 F-2s were built between October 1940 and August 1941 by AGO, Arado, Erla, Messerschmitt Regensburg and WNF(Wiener Neustädter Flugzeugwerke). The shortage of C3 fuel and other problems meant that it was doubtful that 1.98 ata boost was ever used operationally, apart from being tested by II./JG 11. [35] On all of these prototypes, the fuselage was cleaned up and the engine cowling modified to improve aerodynamics. The cowling was streamlined,the spinner enlarged, the propeller blades widened and shortened, thewingtips rounded, and the tail plane bracing struts removed. The Bf 109TL was first proposed on 22 January 1943 at an RLM conference; at the time only three prototypes of the Me 262 had been completed. The plane’s combat range and loiter time were extended by jettisonable external fuel tanks, but, because of aluminum shortages, pilots were strictly enjoined not to jettison them except in the direst of emergencies—thus negating many of their advantages. The fuselage aft of the canopy remained essentially unchanged in its externals. Messerschmitt Bf-109 Was a German World War II fighter aircraft that first saw operational service during the Spanish Civil War (1939) and later became the backbone of the Luftwaffe's fighter force. Because of their aerodynamically more efficient form in a side-view of DB 605AS and D -powered Bf 109 Gs and Ks, the agglomerations were barely discernible compared with the conspicuous fairings they replaced. One A-0, marked as 6–15, ran out of fuel and was forced to land behind enemy lines. The V10, V11, V12 and V13 prototypes were built using Bf 109B airframes, and tested the DB 600A engine with the hope of increasing the performance of the aircraft. [36] The F-0/F-1 and F-2 only differed in their armament; the F-1 being fitted with one 20 mm MG FF/M Motorkanone firing through the propeller hub, with 60 rounds. The F-2 introduced the 15 mm Mauser MG 151 cannon with 200 rounds. One was an interceptor armed with five 30 mm (1.18 in) cannon and up to a 1,000 kg (2,200 lb) bomb load, another a fighter-bomber armed with two MK 108 cannon and up to two 2,200 lb. Takeoff and emergency power of 1,475 PS (1,455 hp, 1,085 kW) was achieved with 1.42 atm (42.5 inches/6.17 lbs) of boost at 2,800 rpm. The remaining 63 of 70 T-1s were built as T-2s without carrier equipment and some of the T-1s may have been "upgraded" to T-2 standard. The following variants of the G-1 and G-2 were produced: In September 1942, the G-4 appeared; this version was identical to the G-2 in all aspects, including performance, except for being fitted with the FuG 16 VHF radio set, which provided much clearer radio transmissions and had three-times the range of the earlier HF sets. [87] The radio antenna mast was also removed from atop the rear fuselage turtledeck, and replaced with a standard late-war Luftwaffe ventral whip aerial antenna under the wing. There were two Rüstzustand[citation needed] planned for G-2s: The rack and internal fuel lines for carrying a 300 L (80 US gal) under-fuselage drop-tank were widely used on G-2s, as were the underwing 20 mm MG 151/20 cannon gondolas. These were fitted with either an ETC 500 bomb rack, carrying one 250 kg (550 lb) bomb, or four 50 kg (110 lb) bombs. Seven earlier versions (Bf 109 B, Bf 109 C, Bf 109 E) were co… The C-4 was planned to have an engine-mounted Motorkanone MG FF, but this variant was not produced. After February 1940 an improved engine, the Daimler-Benz DB 601E, was developed for use with the Bf 109. The ailerons were increased in span, as were the slats, and flap travel was increased. [16] After test fights, the V14 was considered more promising and a pre-production batch of 10 E-0 was ordered. The last 80 G-1s built were lightweight G-1/R2. OWN A PIECE OF GERMAN HISTORY - 1944 Messerschmitt Bf-109 G-14 (SN 462 707 / D-FMGV). this version never existed. The K-4 was the only version to be mass-produced.[95]. Small, triangular armour-glass panels were fitted into the upper corners of this armour, although there were aircraft in which the plate was solid steel. Additional variants were produced abroad totalling in 34,852 Bf 109s built. P-39 Airacobra versus Messerschmitt Bf 109: Airplane: P-39 Airacobra: Messerschmitt Bf 109: Country: USA: Germany: Type of aircraft: Fighter: MR Fighter: First Flight 'Bf' betyder Bayerischen Flugzeugwerken ((tysk): Bajerske flyfabrikker).Prototypen fløj i 1935 med en Rolls-Royce Kestrelmotor, da den tiltænkte Junkers Jumo 210-motor ikke var klar. 112–113, 178–181, 188–189. The Bf 109TL would be a backup if the Me 262 did not come to production or as a second fighter to operate alongside the Me 262. In the summer of 1936 the Luftwaffe had dispatched a multi-role combat force, the Condor Legion, to assist the Nationalist forces fighting in the Spanish Civil War. Beim-zeugmeister : Das Leistungsvermögen der Bf 109 F-4 – Britische Testergebnisse. Rüstsatz kits did not alter the aircraft type so a Bf 109 G-6 with Rüstsatz II (50 kg/110 lb bombs) remained a Bf 109 G-6 and not G-6/R2, which was a reconnaissance fighter with MW 50, as suggested by most publications. A special high-altitude variant, the F-4/Z featuring GM-1 boost, was also built with a production run of 544 in the first quarter of 1942 and saw extensive use. [116], Several of the S-199s were sold to Israel, forming the basis of the fledgeling Israeli Air Force.[117]. Thanks to the improved aerodynamics, more fuel-efficient engines and the introduction of light-alloy versions of the standard Luftwaffe 300 litre drop tank, the Bf 109 F offered a much increased maximum range of 1,700 km (1,060 mi)[37] compared to the Bf 109 E's maximum range figure of only 660 km (410 miles) on internal fuel,[38] and with the E-7's provision for the 300 litre drop tank, a Bf 109E so equipped possessed double the range, to 1,325 km (820 mi). The DB 601 E ran on standard 87 octane "B-4" aviation fuel, despite its increased performance; while the earlier DB 601 N required 100 octane "C-3" fuel. Its baptism of fire was in Spain during the Spanish Civil War of 1936–39. Many of these Bf 109 A-0 served with the Legion Condor and were often misidentified as B-series aircraft, and probably served in Spain with the tactical markings 6-1 to 6–16. However, possibly due to the introduction of the Hurricane and Spitfire, each with eight 7.7 mm (.303 in) machine guns, experiments were carried out with a third machine gun firing through the propeller shaft. Because the radiators were mounted near the trailing edge of the wing, coinciding with the increased speed of the airflow accelerating around the wing camber, cooling was more effective than that of the Jumo engined 109s, albeit at the cost of extra ducting and piping, which was vulnerable to damage. Subsequent Bf 109G versions were essentially modified versions of the basic G-6 airframe. Ebert, Hans A., Johann B. Kaiser and Klaus Peters. Unlike the Rüstsatz field-kits, these modifications were permanent. In the proposed K-6 the armament would have been two 13 mm (.51 in) MG 131 above the engine, along with a 30 mm (1.18 in) MK 108 Motorkanone and an internally mounted MK 108 in each wing, with 45 rpg. A helyes megnevezés a Bf 109. Get exclusive access to content from our 1768 First Edition with your subscription. [35], The entire wing was redesigned, the most obvious change being the new quasi-elliptical wingtips, and the slight reduction of the aerodynamic area to 16.05 m² (172.76 ft²). [96] Flettner tabs for the ailerons were also to be fitted to serial production aircraft to reduce control forces but were extremely rare, with the majority of the K-4s using the same aileron system as the G series.[97]. The C-0s were pre-production aircraft, the C-1 was the production version, and the C-2 was an experimental version with an engine-mounted machine gun. [19][20] A total of 1,276 E-3 were built, including 83 E-3a export versions.[12][13]. The DB 605D was a one-off prototype engine developed from the DB 605A using internal modifications to raise its altitude rating. The early versions of the Bf 109G closely resembled the Bf 109 F-4 and carried the same basic armament; however, as the basic airframe was modified to keep pace with different operational requirements, the basically clean design began to change. Hannu Valtonen – Messerschmitt Bf 109 ja saksan sotatalous, Command from the OKL from 23 December 1941. This canopy, which was also retrofitted to many E-1s and E-3s, was largely unchanged until the introduction of a welded, heavy-framed canopy on the G series in the autumn of 1942. [15] To test the new 1,100 PS (1,085 hp, 809 kW) DB 601A engine, two more prototypes (V14 and V15) were built, each differing in their armament. Pg. While making an evasive manoeuvre, the wings broke away and Balthasar was killed when his aircraft hit the ground. Apart from the standardised streamlined engine cowlings, G-10s with the DB605 D-2 were equipped as standard with the MW-50 booster system (DB 605DM, later 605DB) and had a larger Fo 987 oil cooler housed in a deeper fairing. Previous Emil subtypes were progressively retrofitted with the necessary fittings for carrying a drop tank from October 1940. Small, agile, and well-armed, it proved a serious weapon in the hands of an experienced pilot. These were used as mounts for specially designed sun umbrellas (called Sonderwerkzeug or Special tool), which were used to shade the cockpit. 10 von 01.01.1939 (Deliveries up to 31.12.1938), RLM Lieferplan Nr. [77] The G-6 was very often seen during 1943 fitted with assembly sets, used to carry bombs or a drop tank, for use as a night fighter, or to increase firepower by adding rockets or extra gondola-style, underwing gun pod mount ordnance. A bullet-resistant windscreen could be fitted as an option. From the spring of 1943, the G-series saw the appearance of bulges in the cowling when the 7.92 mm (.312 in) MG 17 were replaced with 13 mm (.51 in) MG 131 machine guns (G-5 onwards) due to the latter's much larger breechblock, and on the wings (due to larger tyres), leading to the Bf 109 G-6's nickname "Die Beule" ("The Bulge"). A gépet említik Bf 109 és Me 109 típusjellel is. Join us now! The Bf 109 received its baptism of fire in July 1937, when Republican forces went onto the offensive west of Madrid. Several aircraft were produced with an engine-mounted machine gun but it was very unreliable, most likely because of engine vibrations and overheating. In these GM-1 nitrous oxide 'boost' was used, and the pilot's back armour was removed, as were all fittings for the long-range drop tank. The last production G-2s were fitted with the enlarged mainwheels and tailwheel while the first of the G-4s used the smaller wheels. Reviews from pilots who flew the Bf 109. on a taller fin/rudder unit, pilot seat or instrument panel. The Bayerische Flugzeugwerke (Bavarian Aircraft Company or BFW) was initially blocked from being sent contracts due to a long running feud between Willy Messerschmitt and the Secretary of State for Aviation, Erhard Milch. [83] Top speed was 568 km/h (353 mph) at sea level, and 665 km/h (413 mph) at 5 km (16,400 ft) altitude. [41] These cutoff valves were later factory standard fitting for Bf 109 G[42] and K series.[43][44]. [49] No tropical version was built, although F-2s were fitted with sand filters in the field. [61] Up to 1944, the G-series was powered by the 1,475 PS Daimler-Benz DB 605 driving a three-blade VDM 9-12087A variable-pitch propeller with a diameter of 3 m (9.8 ft) with even broader blades than used on the F-series. Inquire for more details! Despite this, the type saw only limited service during the war, as all of the 235 Bf 109Ds still in Luftwaffe service at the beginning of the Poland Campaign were rapidly taken out of service and replaced by the Bf 109E, except in some night fighter units where some examples were used into early 1940. A radio-navigational method, the Y-Verführung (Y-Guidance) was introduced with the FuG 16ZY.[81]. Performance of the G-1 was similar, but above rated altitude the GM-1 system it was equipped with could be used to provide an additional 350 horsepower. These so-called agglomerations could be seen in several different patterns. 9–10. Although the enlarged tail unit improved handling, especially on the ground, it weighed more than the standard metal tail unit and required that a counterweight was fitted in the nose, increasing the variant's overall weight.[63]. Wingspan 1032mm 40.6in/890mm (35.0in) Flight video. 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