www.my-domain.bh.bh. [170], Bahrain has established bilateral relations with 190 countries worldwide. [48][51] The sedentary people of pre-Islamic Bahrain were Aramaic speakers and to some degree Persian speakers, while Syriac functioned as a liturgical language. The King Fahd Causeway, 15 miles (24 km) long, links Bahrain to Saudi Arabia. [49], Muhammad's first interaction with the people of Bahrain was the Al Kudr Invasion. to support the varied population. You will also find static directories available at all major entrances of the mall on the first and second floors. Scientific output has risen slowly from 93 articles in 2005 and remains modest. As of 1 January 2016, the population of Bahrain was estimated to be 1,393,661 people. Bahrain has a well-developed road network, particularly in Manama. After World War I, Bahrain became open to western influences, and a demand for modern educational institutions appeared. [192] However, reports by human rights organisations Amnesty International and Human Rights Watch issued in April 2012 said the same violations were still happening. Bahrain - which name means "two seas" - was one of the first states in the Gulf to discover oil and to build a refinery. Gulf Madhyamam is a newspaper published in Malayalam. Claim this business Favorite Share More Directions Sponsored Topics. [328] The government of Bahrain also sponsors a UCI WorldTeam cycling team, Bahrain–Merida, which participated in the 2017 Tour de France. [12] At 780 square kilometres (300 sq mi) in size, it is the third-smallest nation in Asia after the Maldives and Singapore. In 2011, the country experienced protests inspired by the regional Arab Spring. [79] However, ten years later they were forced to pay yearly tributes to Egypt despite seeking Persian and British protection. [326] Bahrain Premier League 2018 comprised six franchise squads of 13 resident cricketers competing in the T20 format. In 2013, Bahrain topped the Arab world for internet penetration (90% of the population), trailed by the United Arab Emirates (86%) and Qatar (85%). The topics covered by current exhibitions include junior engineering, human health, the five senses, Earth sciences and biodiversity. [328] Bahrain's national football team has competed multiple times at the Asian Cup, Arab Nations Cup and played in the FIFA World Cup qualifiers, though it has never qualified for the World Cup. In 2008, there were 17,743,495 passengers transiting through the causeway.[256]. [208] On behalf of the ruling family, Bahraini police have received training on how to deal with public protests from the British government. Roughly half of the population is Arab, and most inhabitants are native-born Bahrainis, but some are Palestinians, Omanis, or Saudis. [267], In 2010, Bahrain's population grew to 1.2 million, of which 568,399 were Bahraini and 666,172 were non-nationals. The 2001 National Action Charter paved the way for the formation of private universities such as the Ahlia University in Manama and University College of Bahrain in Saar. The latter was founded in 2009 to undertake research with a focus on strategic security and energy issues to encourage new thinking and influence policy-making. [186] Due to this, Bahrain lost some of the high International rankings it had gained before. [143], In 1973, the country held its first parliamentary elections; however, two years later, the late emir dissolved the parliament and suspended the constitution after parliament rejected the State Security Law. [267], Bahrain hopes to build a science culture within the kingdom and to encourage technological innovation, among other goals. Several foreign correspondents were expelled. About 92% of Bahrain is desert with periodic droughts and dust storms, the main natural hazards for Bahrainis. "Bahrain Country Report on Human Rights Practices for 1997," 30 January 1998. Bahrain developed the first post-oil economy in the Persian Gulf,[18] the result of decades of investing in the banking and tourism sectors;[19] many of the world's largest financial institutions have a presence in the country's capital. In 2013, the Bahrain Science Centre was launched as an interactive educational facility targeting 6–18-year olds. The southern and western lowlands consist of a bleak sandy plain with some salt marshes, while the northern and northwestern coasts afford a striking contrast, forming a narrow belt of date palms and vegetable gardens irrigated from prolific springs and wells that tap artesian water. Some of the popular historical tourist attractions in the kingdom are the Al Khamis Mosque, which is one of the oldest mosques in the region, the Arad fort in Muharraq, Barbar temple, which is an ancient temple from the Dilmunite period of Bahrain, as well as the A'ali Burial Mounds and the Saar temple. [2] Nepali is also widely spoken in the Nepalese workers and Gurkha Soldiers community. Bahrain has mild winters and very hot, humid summers. According to the 2010 census, Bahrain's population is over 1.2 million, of which around half are non-nationals. [42] The term Tylos was commonly used for the islands until Ptolemy's Geographia when the inhabitants are referred to as Thilouanoi. The country's natural resources include large quantities of oil and natural gas as well as fish in the offshore waters. Radio Bahrain is a long-running English language radio station and Your FM is a radio station serving the large expatriate population from the Indian Subcontinent living in the country. [31], In the 3rd century, Ardashir I, the first ruler of the Sassanid dynasty, marched on Oman and Bahrain, where he defeated Sanatruq the ruler of Bahrain. In 1521, the Portuguese Empire allied with Hormuz and seized Bahrain from the Jabrid ruler Muqrin ibn Zamil, who was killed during the takeover. [310][311][312], The modern art movement in the country officially emerged in the 1950s, culminating in the establishment of an art society. Just half of Bahrainis and Qataris (53%) and two-thirds of those in the United Arab Emirates (64%) had access in 2009. Bejaia 34. It is harder to judge the contribution of women to research, as the data for 2013 only cover the higher education sector. Distance from Bahrain to major cities are listed below, or choose from the list to calculate distance. The country also claims a further 22 km (12 nmi) of territorial sea and a 44 km (24 nmi) contiguous zone. [216] Female activist Ghada Jamsheer said "The government used women's rights as a decorative tool on the international level." It is an archipelago consisting of Bahrain Island and some 30 smaller islands. Bosworth, E. van Donzel and W.P. [137], The Zagros Mountains across the Persian Gulf in Iran cause low-level winds to be directed toward Bahrain. Bahrain, small Arab state situated in a bay on the southwestern coast of the Persian Gulf. [327], Association football is the most popular sport in Bahrain. Ain Temouchent 43. [251] Manama was named the Arab Capital of Culture for 2012 and Capital of Arab Tourism for 2013 by the Arab League and Asian Tourism for 2014 with the Gulf Capital of Tourism for 2016 by The Gulf Cooperation Council. [267], The University of Bahrain had over 20,000 students in 2014, 65% of whom are women, and around 900 faculty members, 40% of whom are women. Summer in Bahrain is unpleasant, as high temperatures frequently coincide with high humidity. First 2 digit 19 for routing Swat district and 010 code Bahrain Post office. Bahrain gave women the right to vote in elections for the first time in 2002. Description Legal. [citation needed] Though a majority of the population is Middle Eastern, a sizeable number of people from South Asia live in the country. ", "The King of Bahrain Wants the Jews Back", "If you take my advice – I'd repress them", "Bahrain – Kingdom of Bahrain – Country Profile – Al Bahrayn – Persian Gulf", "Gulf States: Stay Just on the Horizon, Please", "Bahrain remains stable despite arson attacks that took place in the country", "Bahrain's monarch opens parliament after a span of nearly 30 years", "Bahrain: Promising human rights reform must continue", "The Kingdom of Bahrain: The Constitutional Changes", "To Implement the United States-Bahrain Free Trade Agreement, and for Other Purposes", "Bahrain declares state of emergency after unrest", "BICI | Bahrain Independent Commission of Inquiry", "Report of the Bahrain Independent Commission of Inquiry", "Police Brutality Turns Bahrain Into 'Island of Fear, "The Footage That Reveals the Brutal Truth About Bahrain's Crackdown – Seven Protest Leaders Arrested as Video Clip Highlights Regime's Ruthless Grip on Power", "Bahrain court delays ruling in activists case", "Bahrain protesters join anti-government march in Manama", "Mass pro-democracy protest rocks Bahrain", "Heavy police presence blocks Bahrain protests", "Bomb blast kills three Bahrain policemen", "Tear Gas or Lethal Gas? Thereafter, the Qarmatians demanded tribute from the caliph in Baghdad, and in 930 sacked Mecca and Medina, bringing the sacred Black Stone back to their base in Ahsa, in medieval Bahrain, for ransom. Relations with the United Kingdom became closer, as evidenced by the British Royal Navy moving its entire Middle Eastern command from Bushehr in Iran to Bahrain in 1935. [163][164], The Government of Bahrain has close relations with the United States, having signed a cooperative agreement with the United States Military and has provided the United States a base in Juffair since the early 1990s, although a US naval presence existed since 1948. Bahrain plays a modest, moderating role in regional politics and adheres to the views of the Arab League on Middle East peace and Palestinian rights by supporting the two state solution. Brill, 2008. 1 major city distances are calculated in Bahrain country. Bahrain’s entry into the soccer club came with people criticizing that the country is trying to whitewash its horrific human rights record and this is another way of buying influence in Europe.[344]. Bahrain is a member of the United Nations, Non-Aligned Movement, Arab League, Organisation of Islamic Cooperation and the Gulf Cooperation Council. - Cycling Weekly", "The Fighting Life: The Rise of MMA in Bahrain", "Brave To Host 9 Events in Middle East in 2017; UAE to Have An Edition in March", "Bahrain News Agency | Bahrain to host IMMAF World Championships of Amateur MMA", "Bahrain circuit boss: Race not a big risk", "Press Release: FIA Formula One World Championship – Bahrain Grang Prix", Fédération Internationale de l'Automobile, "Bahrain security, protesters clash ahead of Grand Prix", "Protests As Anger Over Bahrain F1 Race Grows", "Bahrain Buys Into Paris F.C., With Plans to Use It as a Billboard", Kingdom of Bahrain, Ministry of Foreign Affairs website, Union of Arab National Olympic Committees, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Bahrain&oldid=995708478, Arabic-speaking countries and territories, Member states of the Gulf Cooperation Council, Member states of the Organisation of Islamic Cooperation, States and territories established in 1971, Articles with dead external links from October 2019, Articles with permanently dead external links, Articles with dead external links from June 2016, Pages containing links to subscription-only content, Articles with dead external links from August 2018, Wikipedia indefinitely move-protected pages, Short description is different from Wikidata, Pages using infobox country or infobox former country with the symbol caption or type parameters, Wikipedia articles needing page number citations from November 2020, Articles with unsourced statements from June 2019, Articles with unsourced statements from August 2019, Articles containing potentially dated statements from 2008, All articles containing potentially dated statements, Articles containing potentially dated statements from March 2014, Articles containing potentially dated statements from 2012, Articles lacking reliable references from December 2018, Articles containing potentially dated statements from October 2014, Wikipedia articles in need of updating from November 2020, All Wikipedia articles in need of updating, Articles containing potentially dated statements from August 2013, Articles with unsourced statements from November 2020, Articles with unsourced statements from February 2020, Articles containing potentially dated statements from 2011, Wikipedia articles incorporating a citation from EB9, Wikipedia articles incorporating a citation from the 1911 Encyclopaedia Britannica with Wikisource reference, Official website different in Wikidata and Wikipedia, Wikipedia articles with MusicBrainz area identifiers, Wikipedia articles with SELIBR identifiers, Wikipedia articles with SUDOC identifiers, Wikipedia articles with TDVİA identifiers, Wikipedia articles with WORLDCATID identifiers, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License. The project is a partnership between the Supreme Council for Environment, Bahrain Tourism and Exhibitions Authority (BTEA), and private investors. It specified that the ruler could not dispose of any of his territory except to the United Kingdom and could not enter into relationships with any foreign government without British consent. El Oued 32. [4] Aluminium production is the second-most exported product, followed by finance and construction materials. In 1783, the Bani Utbah clan captured Bahrain from Nasr Al-Madhkur and it has since been ruled by the Al Khalifa royal family, with Ahmed al Fateh as Bahrain's first hakim. The V8s returned every November to the Sakhir circuit until 2010, in which it was the second event of the series. The investigation indicates that the aquifer water quality is significantly modified as groundwater flows from the northwestern parts of Bahrain, where the aquifer receives its water by lateral underflow from eastern Saudi Arabia, to the southern and southeastern parts. [12] It had risen from 1.05 million (517,368 non-nationals) in 2007, the year when Bahrain's population crossed the one million mark. The northern region of Bahrain is so densely populated and urbanized that it is often considered a single massive metro area. [30][page needed], During the classical era, Bahrain was referred to by the ancient Greeks as Tylos, the centre of pearl trading, when the Greek admiral Nearchus serving under Alexander the Great landed on Bahrain. [20][page needed] In addition to wells, there are areas of the sea north of Bahrain where fresh water bubbles up in the middle of the saltwater as noted by visitors since antiquity. Four types of salinisation of the aquifer are identified: brackish-water up-flow from the underlying brackish-water zones in north-central, western, and eastern regions; seawater intrusion in the eastern region; intrusion of sabkha water in the southwestern region; and irrigation return flow in a local area in the western region. [167], Bahrain participates in the Saudi Arabian-led intervention in Yemen against the Shia Houthis and forces loyal to former President Ali Abdullah Saleh,[168] who was deposed in the 2011 Arab Spring uprising. [142] In 2003, Bahrain banned the capture of sea cows, marine turtles and dolphins within its territorial waters. [95] In 1948, following rising hostilities and looting,[96] most members of Bahrain's Jewish community abandoned their properties and evacuated to Bombay, later settling in Israel (Pardes Hanna-Karkur) and the United Kingdom. [36] Herodotus also believed that the homeland of the Phoenicians was Bahrain. [33], Alexander had planned to settle Greek colonists on Bahrain, and although it is not clear that this happened on the scale he envisaged, Bahrain became very much part of the Hellenised world: the language of the upper classes was Greek (although Aramaic was in everyday use), while Zeus was worshipped in the form of the Arabian sun-god Shams. In 2004, the Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland (RCSI) set up a constituent medical university in the country. [85] Three years later the British placed the country under the de facto rule of Charles Belgrave who operated as an adviser to the ruler until 1957. [260] In 2004, Zain (a rebranded version of MTC Vodafone) started operations in Bahrain and in 2010 VIVA (owned by STC Group) became the third company to provide mobile services. [34] Bahrain even became the site of Greek athletic contests. Investment in research and development remained very low in 2013. As of August 2013[update], the TRA has licensed 22 Internet Service Providers. Bahrain will host the Saudi-financed Alarab News Channel, expected to launch in December 2012. Bahrain is an Arabic State essentially comprised of around 30 islands, including the largest one, Bahrain Island. He also stated that "In Bahrain, the government continue to question, detain and arrest Shia clerics, community members and opposition politicians. The region stretched from Basra in Iraq to the Strait of Hormuz in Oman. The quasi-governmental women's group, the Supreme Council for Women, trained female candidates to take part in the 2006 general election. The gas reserve in Bahrain is expected to last for less than 27 years, leaving the country with few sources of capital to pursue the development of new industries. [200] On 7 July 2016, the European Parliament adopted, with a large majority, a resolution condemning human rights abuses performed by Bahraini authorities, and strongly called for an end to the ongoing repression against the country's human rights defenders, political opposition and civil society. [21] The term appears five times in the Quran, but does not refer to the modern island—originally known to the Arabs as Awal—but, rather, to all of Eastern Arabia (most notably al-Katif and al-Hasa).[21]. This was Iqlīm al-Bahrayn's "Bahrayn Province". The seas around Bahrain are very shallow, heating up quickly in the summer to produce very high humidity, especially at night. [141], The Hawar Islands Protected Area provides valuable feeding and breeding grounds for a variety of migratory seabirds, it is an internationally recognised site for bird migration. [218] In 2008, Houda Nonoo was appointed ambassador to the United States making her the first Jewish ambassador of any Arab country. The King Fahd Causeway connects Bahrain and Saudi Arabia across the Persian Gulf. The Shia Bahrainis are Baharna (Arab), and the Ajam are Persian Shias. It also caused some problems between the Bahraini and the Qatari governments. [253] Bahrain's national carrier, Gulf Air operates and bases itself in the BIA. Ain Defla 27. [318] Ali Al Shargawi, a decorated longtime poet, was described in 2011 by Al Shorfa as the literary icon of Bahrain. Women thus made up 43% of researchers at the University of Bahrain in 2014. Get exclusive access to content from our 1768 First Edition with your subscription. The man-made Amwaj Islands with beaches, hotels, and large buildings are also located in Muharraq. Sir Arnold Wilson, Britain's representative in the Persian Gulf and author of The Persian Gulf, arrived in Bahrain from Muscat at this time. Bahrain joined the United Nations and the Arab League later in the year. A few prominent institutions are the American University of Bahrain established in 2019,[297] the Bahrain Institute of Banking and Finance, the Ernst & Young Training Institute, and the Birla Institute of Technology International Centre. [161][162] On 7 August 2020, it was announced in a ceremony held at the HMNB Portsmouth Naval Base in the UK, that HMS Clyde had been transferred to the Royal Bahrain Naval Force, with the ship renamed as RBNS Al-Zubara. Shia Bahrainis are divided into two main ethnic groups: Baharna and Ajam. [267], Bahrain invests little in research and development. Precipitation mostly occurs in winter, with an average of 70.8mm of rainfall recorded annually. [241] In 2016 Bahrain used 8.6 global hectares of biocapacity per person - their ecological footprint of consumption. [136] Bahrain depends heavily on food imports to feed its growing population; it relies heavily on meat imports from Australia and also imports 75% of its total fruit consumption needs. The predominant wind is the damp, northwesterly shamāl; the qaws, a hot, dry south wind, is less frequent and brings sand, dust, and low humidity. [81][82] In return the British promised to protect Bahrain from all aggression by sea and to lend support in case of land attack. [213] However, no women were elected to office in that year's polls. Bahrain Tourism: Tripadvisor has 86,924 reviews of Bahrain Hotels, Attractions, and Restaurants making it your best Bahrain resource. Shia Persians form large communities in Manama and Muharraq. The group's leaders were subsequently arrested and exiled to India. [298] Government-provided health care is free to Bahraini citizens and heavily subsidised for non-Bahrainis. [267], In November 2008, an agreement was signed to establish a Regional Centre for Information and Communication Technology in Manama under the auspices of UNESCO. Bahrain's largest islands are Bahrain Island, the Hawar Islands, Muharraq Island, Umm an Nasan, and Sitra. [201], In August 2017, United States Secretary of State Rex Tillerson spoke against the discrimination of Shias in Bahrain, saying, "Members of the Shia community there continue to report ongoing discrimination in government employment, education, and the justice system," and that "Bahrain must stop discriminating against the Shia communities." Visit the Embassy's COVID-19 page for more information on COVID-19 in Bahrain. Legend also states that it was the location of the Garden of Eden. Bahrain's port of Mina Salman is the main seaport of the country and consists of 15 berths. [122][123][124][125][126] More than 80 civilians and 13 policemen have been killed as of March 2014[update]. In 1911, a group of Bahraini merchants demanded restrictions on the British influence in the country. Biskra 33. This is an island owned by the title of being the second-largest island among the famous island chains of Bahrain. On 1 September 2006, Bahrain changed its weekend from being Thursdays and Fridays to Fridays and Saturdays, in order to have a day of the weekend shared with the rest of the world. [198] Human Rights Watch in its 2015 report described the situation of a Shia majority as more than tragic. [233][234] Bahrain's banking and financial services sector, particularly Islamic banking, have benefited from the regional boom driven by demand for oil. [75], Around the 1760s, the Al Jalahma and House of Khalifa, both belonging to the Utub Federation, migrated to Zubarah in modern-day Qatar, leaving Al Sabah as the sole proprietors of Kuwait. Edited by: P. Bearman, Th. [237] In 2004, Bahrain signed the Bahrain–US Free Trade Agreement, which will reduce certain trade barriers between the two nations. [277], The state religion of Bahrain is Islam and most Bahraini citizens are Muslim. Healthcare expenditure accounted for 4.5% of Bahrain's GDP, according to the World Health Organization. Please update this section to reflect recent events or newly available information. This is a list of cities and towns in Bahrain with listed governorates: ); in later periods, it served as a trading and military outpost. [291], At the beginning of the 20th century, Qur'anic schools (Kuttab) were the only form of education in Bahrain. And girls segregated into separate schools ماهی ) meaning three fish Nepali is also one of Persian! 2016, the available data for researchers in 2013 176 per million inhabitants in.! Population lives in the late 1800s, following successive treaties with the United Kingdom is a between. Crackdown on the Muharraq Island the government was composed of the ancient Kingdom of Dilmun, letter... Launch in December 1994, a commercial centre that traded with ancient...., cases of Malaria and tuberculosis ( TB ) do not constitute major problems in Bahrain and Arabia... And tourists can re-live history through Bahrain ’ s chief port and also important... 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